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Haematococcus pluvialis
Cultivation

Haematococcus pluvialis is also called lake-live haematococcaceae or Haematoculcuspluvialis, which is a universal green alga, belonging to Volvocales, Haematococcaceae. Haematococcuspluvialis is universally acknowledged as the best creature to produce natural astaxanthin, thus becoming the research focus in recent years. Therefore, extraction of astaxanthin from Haematococcuspluvialis can witness a vast potential for future development.

Haematococcuspluvialis has the content of astaxanthin being 1.5%~3.0%, thus being seen as the concentration of natural astaxanthin. Abundant researches have shown that Haematococcuspluvialis has a higher accumulation speed and production capacityofastaxanthin compared with other green algaes. Moreover, Haematococcuspluvialis has the similar astaxanthin/esters matching to the matching of aquaculture creatures, which cannot be realized by astaxanthin acquired by chemical synthesis and Phaffiarhodozyma.

Haematococcaceae has more universal momentary states than steady state. Partly, it is because there are no other competitive algae, and it has nothing to do with inherent characteristic of the pool. Haematococcaceae can better adapt to the light, temperature and salidity than most other algae, which is due to its capability of fast formation into sporocyst. 

History, distribution and classification of Haematococcuspluvialis

The first comprehensive description about Haematococcuspluvialis originated from the report of T.E.Hazen in 1899. He found that, Haematococcuspluvialis is normally attached to water altar, or Shoal Bay close to the seaside. The life course of this kind of algae has experienced a red dormancy stage, followed by a green moving stage, and another red dormancy stage. At that time, the chemical properties of the red substance in the algae is still unclear, but there is a name for it, namely "haematochrom", which is what we call astaxanthin.

Years later, Peebles(1901a, 1909b) has published the development history of this algae, with a detailed description of the changes of "haematochrom" in the whole life course. In 1934, Elliot supplemented the detailed development history of this algae from cell morphology. In the whole life course, there are four typical cell morphologies, namely small polypide, large flagellated olypide, sheath without moving capacity and haematocysts with hard cell wall. In a clean environment with sufficient nutrition, large olypide is in the leading position. In case of environmental degradation, it will transform into sheath, and then haematocysts with resisting capacity. At this time, astaxanthin begins to accumulate. After that, with sufficient nutrition and clean environment, the haematocysts can become movable small polypide, which will grow into sheath and large polypide.

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